ANALYSIS OF OPERATION MODELS IN THE DISTRICT HEATING SECTOR OF EU COUNTRIES. PART 1
The paper covers state of the art and prospects for the development of district heating in Europe, including the use of renewable energy sources. Basic models of district heating system designs are analyzed. It is shown that efficiency of district heating operation depends on the extent of unbundling of heat generation and transmission, opportunities for third-party access to heat networks, existing types of ownership.
2. Directive 2012/27/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 25 October 2012 on energy efficiency http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=OJ:L:2012:315:FULL&from=EN
3. Harri-Pekka Korhonen. Overview of DH pricing and regulation in Europe. Fortum, 2012. http://www.lsta.lt/files/events/121204_FORTUM/10_Overview%20of%20DH%20pricing%20and%20regulation%20in%20Europe_H-P%20Korhonen.pdf
4. Regulated third-party access in heat markets: how to organize access conditions. Oxera Agenda, June 2014. http://www.oxera.com/getmedia/195b43b0-6bd3-4fc4-8b13-df95f80acf2e/Regulated-third-party.pdf.aspx?ext=.pdf
5. District Heating System Ownership Guide. DHCAN, 2004 http://projects.bre.co.uk/DHCAN/pdf/OwnershipManagement.pdf
6. Britt Aronson, Stefan Hellmer. An International Comparison of District Heating Markets, 2009. http://www.svenskfjarrvarme.se/Global/FJ%C3%84RRSYN/Rapporter%20och%20resultatblad/Rapport%20marknad/2009/An%20International%20Comparison%20of%20District%20Hetaing%20Markets.pdf
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