ANALYSIS OF THE POSSIBILITIES FOR SAVING AND DEVELOPMENT OF DISTRICT HEATING SYSTEMS ІN UKRAINE
Purpose of the paper is to analyze the main causes leading to the destruction of DH systems in Ukraine, as well as the search for ways to modernize the existing worn-out DH system. After comparison of DH and individual systems, it was concluded that in order to retain the leading positions, the DH should generate heat significantly (by 20-40%) cheaper than individual systems. Several technical measures have been examined in detail and evaluated, namely: transition to cheaper fuels, in particular biomass; transition to technologies that are more efficient for generation of thermal energy (CHP, cogeneration plants, condensing economizers). In addition, it is necessary to create conditions for full-fledged competitiveness of Communal Utilities with independent heat producers, in particular, a simplification of networks connection procedure. No special requirements should be put other than heat carrier parameters and lower heat price. A reliable parallel operation of Communal Utilities and independent companies is possible in DH systems exceeding 50 Gcal / h. The emerged competition must induce Communal Utilities to use biomass on their own CHPs and boilers and produce cheaper heat. An important organizational measure is a full transition from the "cost +" principle in tariff formation to incentive tariff formation. It is also necessary to determine tariff costs separately by each type of licensed activity (production, transportation and supply of heat energy), while not allowing cross subsidies. Summing up the above suggestions it is concluded that state authorities should adopt program documents with strategic direction for the preservation and development of the DH systems.
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