PROBLEMS DURING OPERATION OF HEATING SYSTEMS AND CLEANING AS A WAY OF THEIR DECISION (REVIEW)
The article deals with the problem of providing the population with thermal energy. Today, it is one of the important components of the central and local authorities. Now thermal energy and the sphere of thermal energy consumption in Ukraine are in a crisis condition (up to 80% of emergency networks). As a result, it negatively affects the level of energy and national security of the country as a whole. It is shown that among the main factors influencing the situation are unsatisfactory technical condition of thermal energy objects, imperfect system of pricing, lack of necessary investment funds for modernization to fixed assets of thermal energy and housing stock. As a result, this does not allow the implementation of modern technology in this area. Therefore, the quality of the population's supply of heat is very low. The data on statistics on excessive losses in the production and transportation of heat is given. This is explained by the fact that heat losses during transportation in centralized networks reach 45…60%, while the low level of thermal insulation increases them by another 1…20%. So the consumer receives a smaller portion of the thermal energy, and if you take into account the state of the old cast iron radiators that are triggered, then you can imagine how huge the heat loss is. In connection with this now, an important task is find ways to improve the efficiency of heat networks. The article gives a literary review of recent research and publications in which the solution to this problem was initiated. It has been established that the modernization and reconstruction of heat networks requires high financial costs, and so now the authorities are working to improve the efficiency of the old heating networks.
The article analyzes one of the approaches - this is the washing of radiators. In this direction, existing methods and approaches to the cleaning of heating systems are considered, and the most basic ones are defined, which allow to effectively carry out flushing of the system without its modernization and attracting additional capital investments. As a result of the spent statistical analysis and on the basis of the existing experimental base and cleaning plants, equipment has been created that allows the washing of closed or open heating as a whole or locally. It also effectively removes dirt from the inside walls of the system. The equipment works by means of combined pneumohydropimpuls and chemical methods, as well as the main mechanisms of cavitation. The result before the use of such equipment will increase the heat transfer coefficient of the whole system and more efficiently use the energy resource, saving at the same time funds.
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