STATE OF WASTEWATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES IN UKRAINE AND THE WORLD
In sewage treatment plants, sludge is formed during wastewater treatment, in addition to treated water. They are dumped on silt sites, which occupy large areas and almost all overcrowding. The content of large amounts of minerals and toxic substances in sediments leads to the deterioration of underwater waters and land, which in turn leads to the deterioration of ecology and life in Ukraine. An urgent task in Ukraine is to create a comprehensive processing of sludge, which includes economic, technological, social and environmental aspects.
The main methods of sludge disposal are use in agriculture, landfilling, incineration and dumping into the sea or ocean. The country is gradually trying to abandon the burial. European Union countries also process sludge aerobically and anaerobically. During these processes, components of organo-mineral fertilizers are created that can be used in agriculture. As fertilizers, sludge is composted, stabilized and pasteurized. Combustion of sludge allows to obtain a substitute for coal and oil. To increase the heat of combustion and improve combustion parameters to sludge sludge add coal, biomass. Low-temperature pyrolysis of sewage sludge and household waste, which allows to obtain "crude oil". One of the methods is processing in biogas plants to obtain both biogas and environmentally friendly fertilizers. To increase the efficiency of treatment and reduction of sludge disposal of used stagnation-ments vermiculture.
Analysis of the literature allows us to conclude that there are methods of disposal of sludge, which have become widespread in various countries around the world, such as fertilizers, alternative fuels, landfills and others. When disposing of sludge, it is possible to produce biogas, electricity and heat, which reduces energy costs for the process.
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