STATE OF WASTEWATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES IN UKRAINE AND THE WORLD
In sewage treatment plants, sludge is formed during wastewater treatment, in addition to treated water. They are dumped on silt sites, which occupy large areas and almost all overcrowding. The content of large amounts of minerals and toxic substances in sediments leads to the deterioration of underwater waters and land, which in turn leads to the deterioration of ecology and life in Ukraine. An urgent task in Ukraine is to create a comprehensive processing of sludge, which includes economic, technological, social and environmental aspects.
The main methods of sludge disposal are use in agriculture, landfilling, incineration and dumping into the sea or ocean. The country is gradually trying to abandon the burial. European Union countries also process sludge aerobically and anaerobically. During these processes, components of organo-mineral fertilizers are created that can be used in agriculture. As fertilizers, sludge is composted, stabilized and pasteurized. Combustion of sludge allows to obtain a substitute for coal and oil. To increase the heat of combustion and improve combustion parameters to sludge sludge add coal, biomass. Low-temperature pyrolysis of sewage sludge and household waste, which allows to obtain "crude oil". One of the methods is processing in biogas plants to obtain both biogas and environmentally friendly fertilizers. To increase the efficiency of treatment and reduction of sludge disposal of used stagnation-ments vermiculture.
Analysis of the literature allows us to conclude that there are methods of disposal of sludge, which have become widespread in various countries around the world, such as fertilizers, alternative fuels, landfills and others. When disposing of sludge, it is possible to produce biogas, electricity and heat, which reduces energy costs for the process.
2. Khencze M., Armoe`s P., Lya-Kur-Yansen J., Arvan E`. Ochistka stochny`kh vod [Wastewater treatment], Mos-cow, Mir [World]. 2006. 480 p. (Rus.)
3. E`kologicheskaya biotekhnologiya [Environmental Biotechnology] / Ed. Forstera K.F., Vejza D.A.Dzh, Leningrad, Khimiya [Chemistry]. 1990. 384 p. (Rus.)
4. Likhachev N.I. Kanalizacziya naselenny`kh mest i promy`shlenny`kh predpriyatij. Spravochnik proektirovshhika [Sewerage of settlements and industrial enterprises. Designer handbook] / N.I. Likhachev, I.I. Larin, S.A. Khaskin et al. Ed.V. N. Samokhina. 2nd ed., Moscow, Stroyizdat, 1981. 639 p. (Rus.)
5. Ahn Y.H., Choi H.C. Municipal sludge management and disposal in South Korea: Status and a new sustainable approach, Water Science and Technology, 2004. V. 50(9). Р. 245–253.
6. Evilevich A. Z., Evilevich M A. Utilizaciya osadkov stochnykh vod [Disposal of sewage sludge], Leningrad, Stroy-izdat. 1988. 248p. (Rus.)
7. Pakhnenko E.P. Osadki stochny`kh vod i drugie netradiczionny`e organicheskie udobreniya [Waste water sedi-ments and other non-traditional organic fertilizers], Electronic resource URL: http://files.pilotlz.ru/pdf/cC2968-7-ch.pdf. (Rus.)
8. Koval`skaya A.I. Obespechenie e`kologicheskoj bezopasnosti utilizaczii ilovy`kh osadkov [Ensuring the ecological safety of the disposal of silt sediments], E`kologiya urbanizirovanny`kh territorij [Ecology of urbanized territories], 2011. №4. Р.70–72. (Rus.)
9. McClellan K.R., Halden R.U. Pharmaceuticals and personal care products in archived U.S. biosolids from the 2001 EPA National Sewage Sludge Survey, Water Research, 2010. V. 44(2). Р. 658–668.
10. Berbecea A., Radulov I., Sala F. Res. J. Agricultural use of sewage sludge pros and cons, Agricult, 2008, V. 40(2). Р. 15–20 .
11. Chang A.C., Page A.L. Developing human health-related chemical guidelines for reclaimed wastewater and sewage sludge applications in agriculture, Geneva, World Health Organization, 1995. 114 р.
12. Vesilind P.A., Spinosa L., Part I. (Ed.). Sludge production and characterization. Production and regulations. Sludge into biosolids. Processing, disposal and utilization, London, IWA Publishing, 2001. P. 3–18.
13. Wang J.Y., Stabnikova O., Tay S.T., Ivanov V., Tay J. H. Biotechnology of intensive aerobic conversion of sewage sludge and food waste into fertilizer, Water Science and Technology, 2004. V. 49(10). Р. 147–154.
14. Nezdojminov V. I., Chernysheva A. V. Migraciya ionov tyazhelykh metallov pri ispol'zovanii osadkov gorodskikh stoch-nykh vod v kachestve udobreniya [Migration of heavy metalsions by using urban sewage sludge as fertilizer], Visnyk Donbaskoi Nacionalnoi Akademii budivnyctva i arkhitectury [Bulletin of the Donbas National Academy of Civil Engineering and Architecture], 2010. V. 82(2). Р. 150–157. (Rus.)
15. Kaletnik H. M., Honcharuk T. V. Prospects of sewage water use in Vinnytsia to feed the field crops: domestic and foreign experience, Balanced Natural Resources, 2016. V. 6(3), Р. 42–47.
16. Du H., Li F. Characteristics of dissolved organic matter formed in aerobic and anaerobic digestion of excess acti-vated sludge, Chemosphere, 2017. V. 168. P. 1022–1031.
17. Evropejskaya praktika obrashheniya s otkhodami: problemy`, resheniya, perspektivy` [European practice of waste management: problems, solutions, prospects] / Regional`noe E`nergeticheskoe Partnerstvo [Regional Energy Partnership], St. Petersburg, 2005. Electronic resource URL: http://govorusha.com/books/evropeyskaya-praktika-obrascheniya-s-othodami. (Rus.)
18. Payonk T. Zakonodatel`stvo Evropejskogo Soyuza v oblasti utilizaczii osadkov [Legislation of the European Union in the field of sludge disposal], Vodosnabzhenie i sanitarnaya tekhnika [Water supply and sanitary engi-neering], 2003. № 1. P. 37 – 41. (Rus.)
19. E`nergiya prirody` [Energy of nature]. Zametki s III vesennego biotoplivnogo kongressa «Lesprominform» [Notes from the III spring biofuel congress "Lesprominform"], 2009. № 2 (60). P. 124–129. (Rus.)
20. Kovalchuk V.A. Ochystka stichnykh vod [Wastewater treatment] [Monograph], Rivne, VAT « Rivnenska drukarnia» [OJSC "Rivne Printing House"], 2002. 662 p. (Ukr.)
21. Pashutina E.N., Davy`dov S.I. ekotory`e voprosy` utilizaczii osadkov stochny`kh vod goroda Luganska [Some questions of utilization of sediments of sewage of the city of Lugansk], aukovyi visnyk Luhanskoho NAU, Seriia Biolohichni nauky [Scientific herald of Lugansk NAU, Series Biological sciences], Lugansk, Elton-2, 2010. №19. P. 84-87. (Rus.)
22. Kalogo Y., Monteith H. Energy and Resource Recovery from Sludge, IWA Publishing, 2012. 192 p.
23. Blagorazumova A.M. Obrabotka i obezvozhivanie osadkov gorodskikh stochny`kh vod [Treatment and dehydration of urban wastewater sludge], 2nd ed., revised. and additional, St. Petersburg, Lan` [Doe], 2014. 208 p. (Rus.)
24. Suchkova N. G. Analysis of the problem of treatment plant sludge fields reclamation and perspectives for Kharkiv region, Abstract of the International congress – Ecology, Technology, Economy Water Supply and Sanitation, Yalta, Ukraine, 2007. Р. 22–26. (Rus.)
Abstract views: 249 PDF Downloads: 250
If the article is accepted for publication in the journal «Industrial Heat Engineering» the author must sign an agreementon transfer of copyright. The agreement is sent to the postal (original) or e-mail address (scanned copy) of the journal editions.
Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License International CC-BY that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.